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The rule of law requires that all public powers must act within the constraints set out by clearly defined laws, in accordance with democracy and fundamental rights, and under the control of independent and impartial courts. The rule of law includes: a) legality, meaning a transparent, accountable, democratic, and pluralistic process for enacting laws; b) legal certainty, meaning that laws need to have foreseeable effects; c) the prohibition of the arbitrary exercise of executive power; d) effective judicial protection by independent and impartial courts, and effective judicial review, including respect for fundamental rights; e) the separation of powers; and (f) equality before the law. Each of these components is indispensable to the rule of law.