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Under this procedure, national courts of EU Member States submit questions to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). Hence, it is a mechanism of dialogue that provides national courts with assistance from the CJEU on questions regarding the interpretation of EU law and contributes to uniform application of the EU law. It also allows for verifying the conformity of acts of the EU institutions with primary EU law (treaties). A judgment of the CJEU in a preliminary reference procedure is, strictly speaking, binding only on the national court that submitted the question. Nonetheless, all national courts interpreting EU law should take them into account.